Purushartha is a key concept in Hinduism, referring to the four ultimate goals of human life. The term is derived from two Sanskrit roots; purusha, meaning “human being,” and artha, meaning “purpose” or “objective.” As such, purushartha can be translated as the “object of human pursuit” or “purpose of human beings.”
Arranged in order of priority from lowest to highest, the four purushartha are: artha (prosperity and economic values), kama (sensual pleasures), dharma (righteousness and morality), and moksha (liberation from the cycle of reincarnation).
Whilst all four of these goals are considered to be important, Hindu philosophy gives precedence to dharma over artha and kama, and moksha is viewed above all as the ultimate aim of all human life.
Purushartha may also sometimes be referred to as caturvarga.