Category Archives: Mythology

Mythology {3} ~ Gods & Goddesses {9} ~ The Native American

Creators, Gods, and Spirits. Many Native American mythologies have a high deity—sometimes referred to as the Great Spirit—who is responsible for bringing the universe or the world into existence. Often, however, the Great Spirit merely begins the process of creation and then disappears or removes itself to heaven, leaving other gods to complete the detailed work of creation and to oversee the day-to-day running of the world.

In many Native American mythologies, Father Sky and Mother Earth or Mother Corn are important creative forces. The high god of the Pawnee people, Tirawa, gave duties and powers to the Sun and Moon, the Morning Star and Evening Star, the Star of Death, and the four stars that support the sky. The Lakota people believe that the sun, sky, earth, wind, and many other elements of the natural, human, and spiritual worlds are all aspects of one supreme being, Wakan Tanka. The secondary gods are often personifications of natural forces, such as the wind. In the mythology of the Iroquois people, for example, the thunder god Hunin is a mighty warrior who shoots arrows of fire and is married to the rainbow goddess.

For many centuries, Native Americans have passed their myths from generation to generation though oral stones and artistic repesentations.

The character Coyote figures in some tales as a trickster and in others as a creator whose actions benefit humankind. Kachinas, spirits of the dead who link the human and spiritual worlds, play an important role in the mythologies of the Pueblo peoples of the American Southwest, including the Zuni and Hopi Indians. In Hopi mythology, the creator deity is a female being called Spider Woman. Among the Zuni, the supreme creator is Awonawilona, the sun god. The mythology of the Navajo Indians—who live in the same area as the Hopi and Zuni but are not a Pueblo people—focuses on four female deities called Changing Woman, White Shell Woman, Spider Woman, and First Woman.

Source: http://www.mythencyclopedia.com/Mi-Ni/Native-American-Mythology.html

Mythology {3} ~ Gods & Goddesses {8} ~ The Aztecs

The Aztecs had a complex and diverse group of Gods and Goddesses. Scholars that studied the Aztec deities established more than 200 gods and separated them into three categories. Each of these groups supervised one aspect of the universe such as heaven or the sky, agriculture and the war and sacrifice. Whenever they took over a new tribe or culture, they often take up the conquered tribe’s gods as well.

The Aztecs had three main gods, four sub-gods and an infinite amount of gods underneath the sub gods. Here are just some of the most important deities in the Aztec culture.

Huitzilopochtli (Weetz-ee-loh-POCHT-lee)
Huitzilopochtli was the most fearsome and powerful of the Aztec gods. He was the god of war, the sun and sacrifice. During the migration of the Aztecs, he was the god that pointed them to the place Tenochtitlan, the capital city of the Aztecs which Huitzilopohctli is the patron god of. He also has a temple built in honor of him at the center of the city. Huitzilopochtli required blood sacrifice to help him win the battle against darkness. Humans were sacrificed for him as it was thought that the sacrificed warriors were to rise and fight with Huitzilopochtli. But blood sacrifice was not always in the form of human sacrifice. Sometimes there was ritual blood letting used instead of human sacrifice. Huitzilopochtli means Hummingbird to the Left. He was often drawn with feathers and holding a scepter made from a snake.

Tlaloc (Tlá-loc)
Tlaloc was the god of rain and water as well as one of the most ancient deities in all of Mesoamerica. His origans can be traced back to the Maya, the Olmec and Teotilhuacan. He was associated with life giving, fertility, agricultre as well as springs, mountains and caves. He was worshipped at the Great Temple in Tenochtitlan. He had a shrine decorated with blue bands representing rain and water. Tlaloc helped the Aztecs most of the time by sending rain and causing plants to grow. However, Tlaloc could also get angry and send thunder storms and hail. The Aztecs believed that in order to keep the god happy and for rain to come down, they must sacrifice their children as the cries and tears of newborn children were sacred to the god. Children were expected to weep in order to bring the rain. Another kind of less gruesome sacrifice to him was having little statues in the shaped children made of dough and offered to him. They were eaten at banquets. He is also worshiped at the top of a tall mountain named Mount Tlaloc where the sacrifices of the children were made to him. He is often drawed with fangs and goggle-like eyes.

Quetzalcoatl (Keh-tzal-coh-atl)
Quetzalcoatl was the god of life and wind. He was known as “the Feathered Serpent” and is probably the most famous Aztec deity. He is also known in many other Mesoamerican cultures such as the Teotihuacan and the Mayas. He was a very creative god and he was the patron god of knowledge and learning. He is the twin of Tezcatlipoca and is also often known as White Tezcatlipoca due to the contrast between Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca as he is the complete opposite of Tezcatlipoca. After the Fourth sun was destroyed, Quetzalcoatl went to the land of death, Mictlan and created our current world and the Fifth sun by using his own blood to give life to bones. He is also the giver of maize to mankind. Quetzalcoatl is known as a hero to the Aztecs because he made their city flourish and prosper. But due to being tricked by his twin brother into breaking Quetzalcoatl’s vow of celibacy, Quetzalcoatl fled the place but not before promising to return. Quetzalcoatl is described as a white, bearded god who came from the sky therefore leading some Mormon scholars to believe that Quetzalcoatl was actually Jesus Christ. The Aztecs mistakened Hernan Cortez for Quetzalcoatl which led to the downfall of the great civilisation

Tezcatlipoca (Tez-cah-tlee-poh-ka)
Tezcatlipoca was a very powerful god associated with many things such as magic, the night and the earth. Tezcatlipoca was the god of the nocturnal sky, the god of ancestral memory and also the god of time. He is also known as the Lord of the North and the twin brother of Quetzalcoatl who was also his arch rival. Tezcatlipoca was the first god to create the sun and earth, however he was defeated by Quetzalcoatl and turned into a jaguar. He had a large temple built for worshipping him in the city of Tenochtitlan. His name means “Smoking Mirror”. He often represents an evil power and is the counterpart of Quetzalcoatl. He is also known as “Black Tezcatlipoca”. Tezcatlipoca could also transform into a jaguar called Tepeyollotl “Heart of the Mountain” and also into a turkey, Chalchihuihtotolin “The Jewelled Fowl.” Chalchihuihtotolin is a symbol of powerful sorcery. Tezctalipoca can tempt humans into destroying themselves but when he takes his turkey form, he can cleanse them from contamination, free them from guilt and help them overcome their fate.

Chicomecoatl
Chicomecoatl was the Aztec goddess of agriculture, nourishment and maize thus making her one of the most ancient as well as important goddess in the Valley of Mexico. Her name means seven snakes and the number 7 in her name is associated with luck and abundance. She was often portrayed as the wife of the corn god, Cenetéotl. She is often drawn as a young girl or a woman using the sun as a shield with her body and face painted red, wearing a distinctive rectangular headdress or pleated fan of red paper. In sculpture, she is also often holding a double ear of corn in each hand. Every harvest season, a young girl representing Chicomecoatl would be sacrificed. Her head would be cut of and her blood would be poured over a statue of Chicomecoatl. Her skin would then be worn by a priest of Chicomecoatl.

Source: https://aztecsrcool.weebly.com/gods-and-goddesses.html

Mythology {3} ~ Gods & Goddesses {7} ~ The Mayan

The ancient Maya had over 150 Gods in their complex religion, each with clearly defined characteristics and purposes.

1. Itzamn (or Zamn )
Itzamn, the lord of the heavens as well as night and day; could be called upon in hard times or calamities.

2. Chac
Although second in power, Chac was first in importance as the god of rain, and by association, the weather and fertility.

3. Ah Mun
Ah Mun was the corn god and the god of agriculture. He was always represented as a youth, often with a corn ear headdress.

4. Ah Puch
The god of death, ruled over the ninth and lowest of the Maya underworlds. He was always malevolent.

5. Ek Chuah
Ek was the god of war, human sacrifice, and violent death. Not the kind of god you’d want to meet in person.

In addition to these, there were patron gods, 13 of the upper world and nine of the lower, plus numerous calendar gods who posed for glyphs. Other deities, such as Kukulcan and Chac Mool, came into the line-up as the society changed in Post Classic times. The religious hierarchy became so bewildering that it was beyond the comprehension of the average Maya, who relied on priests to interpret the religion (so what’s new?). To the common man, who lives or dies by the cycle of rain and drought, Chac remains the god most frequently involved in daily life.

Source: https://www.tulum.com/information/mayan-history/

Mythology {3} ~ Gods & Goddesses {6} ~ The Hindu

1. Vishnu

The god of preserver, Vishnu is also known as the divine arbitrator. Symbolically, Lord Vishnu represents justice and moral order. Comes after creation, Vishnu sustains the universe and upholds its many laws. You might call on Vishnu if you’re seeking protection, patience, knowledge, or prosperity.

2. Shiva

The god of both protector and destroyer, Lord Shiva is a powerful god and is widely worshipped for its potent destructive energy. Shiva is married to Parvarti, also known as Shakti, with whom he has two sons: Ganesha, the remover of all obstacles; and Skanda, god of war. Shiva is the ultimate representation of how great destruction precedes new opportunities. You might call on Shiva as a source of inspiration as you try to achieve a goal or when experiencing hardships in life.There are many mantras reciting Lord Shiva, one of which is Om Namah Shivaya.

3. Brahma

The god of creation, Brahma is the creator of the world and all creatures. Lord Brahma represents the source of the universal mind as well as intellect. Brahma is the least worshipped god in Hinduism today. Currently, there are only two temples in the whole of India devoted to him- one in Pushkar and the other in Kerala. One of the reasons why Brahma is rarely worshipped is that Brahma’s role as the creator is over. It is left to Vishnu to preserve the world and Shiva to continue its path of cosmic reincarnation.

Trinity of Gods (Trimurti)

Trimurti, the term denotes “having three forms,” refers to the three main Hindu gods mentioned above: Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Initially, the Trimurti was worshipped as a single entity- the Supreme Being. Later, the three gods were separated and took on their own individualism. It is commonly believed that these three forms actually represent earth (Brahma), water (Vishnu), and fire (Shiva).

4. Kali

Powerful yet widely misunderstood, Mother Kali is the goddess of death, time, and doomsday. Albeit her immense destructive power, she is a strong mother-figure and symbolic of compassionate-love. Kali is said to remove our attachment with the body reinforcing the awareness that the body is a temporary condition. In a sense, Kali grants liberation by demising the illusion of the ego.

5. Lakshmi

For Hindus, the goddess Lakshmi is the symbol of prosperity, fertility, purity, generosity, and the embodiment of beauty and grace. Known as the daughter of mother goddess Durga and the wife of Vishnu, Lakshmi is an important domestic deity and her presence is found in almost every household. In statuary and artwork, Lakshmi is usually depicted as a beautiful woman with four hands, sitting on a full-bloomed lotus and holding a lotus bud. Her four hands symbolizes the four ends of human life: dharma or righteousness, kama or desires, artha or wealth, and moksha or liberation from the cycle of birth and death.

6. Saraswati

Saraswati, the goddess of knowledge and arts, represents the free flowing of wisdom and consciousness. Saraswati is the daughter of Lord Shiva and Goddess Durga. She possesses four hands, which represent the four aspects of human personality in learning: mind, intellect, alertness, and ego. You would call upon Saraswati for the power of speech, wisdom, and learning.

7. Ganesha

A very popular god in the modern yoga world, the elephant-headed god Ganesha is one of the most important deities in Hinduism. The son of Shiva and Parvati, Ganesha is the lord of success and the remove of all obstacles. He is commonly worshiped as the god of education, wisdom, and wealth. Ganesha’s head symbolizes the eternal soul (Atma), while his body signifies illusion in the material world (Maya). You would call upon Ganesha for protection and removal of any obstacles that may come your way.

8. Hanuman

Hanuman, the mighty monkey god, is the ultimate image of faith and devotion. Hanuman’s tale in the epic Ramayana- in which he is given the mission of locating Rama’s wife Sita who was captured by the demon king of Lanka- Ravana, is known to inspire readers to face adversities and overcome obstructions in the way of the world. Hanuman’s strong character is used in the Hindu religion as a metaphor of the unlimited power that lies unused within each human individual. In times of doubt and great difficulties, you would call upon Hanuman for physical strength, perseverance, and devotion.

Source: https://www.allyogatraining.com/the-8-hindu-gods-and-goddesses.html

Mythology {3} ~ Gods & Goddesses {5} ~ The Chinese

1. Guanyin

Guanyin, also known as Guanyin Pusa, is Chinese “Goddess of Mercy”. She is considered to always help the distressed and hungry and gives comfort and aid wherever it is needed. Among all the Buddhist Bodhisattva, Guanyin is the most well-known one in China and liked by both young and old people.

2. Jade Emperor 玉皇大帝

Jade Emperor (or Yuhuang Dadi in mandarin Chinese) is considered the highest deity ruling the universe in Chinese Taoism. In Chinese mythological stories, he is the most powerful god and controls all gods from the Buddhist and Taoist and other religions. Jade Emperor is worshiped by ordinary Chinese people throughout all China.

3. Wangmu Niangniang 王母娘娘

Wangmu Niangniang, or the Queen Mother of the West, is the highest goddess and is the wife of the Jade Emperor in Taoism. She commands all female gods and is also a god of happiness and longevity and has magic pills which can make people live forever. She owns a Heavenly Peach Garden in which magic peach trees grow. The peach can make people perpetually young.

4. Yan Wang 阎王

Yan Wang is Chinese god of death who commands all the gods of the underworld. He has a filing book which records the life and death of every person. He gives appropriate punishment according to the conduct of each’s acts during his lifetime.

5. Long Wang (Dragon King) 龙王

Long Wang, or Dragon King, is the Chinese god of the sea. He rules his own royal court and commands all creatures in water. The Dragon King also controls the rain and winds and can bring rainfall to the earth according to the order of Jade Emperor.

6. Nüwa 女娲

Nüwa is the Chinese goddess who created human beings. It was said she molded yellow mud into a figure like her, which was then alive and became the first human being. Nüwa is also known for mending the sky with five-colored stones.

7. Nezha 哪吒

Nezha is a great teen deity in Chinese mythology. Nezha was most well-known for assisting Jiang Ziya against the Shang Dynasty in the 16th-century Chinese novel Fengsheng Yanyi. In Journey to the West, Nezha was a general of the heaven. She fought the Monkey King and helped him defeat powerful demons.

8. The Eight Immortals 八仙

The Eight Immortals are a group of legendary immortals in Chinese mythology. Each Immortal has his/her own power tool to bestow life or destroy evil. They live on five islands in the east China’s Bohai Sea including the famous Penglai Island in Shandong province.

9. Caishen 财神

Caishen is god in charge of wealth in Chinese mythology. Chinese people especially businessmen often offer sacrifices to Caishen at home or shops, hoping to become richer with the help of this “Chinese god of money”. He is usually depicted in red clothes holding a golden rod.

10. Chang’e 嫦娥

Chang’e is the Chinese goddess of the Moon and the wife of Hou yi, a hero who shot nine suns in the ancient mythology of China. During the traditional Chinese Mid-Autumn festival, Chinese people usually offer moon cakes and stare at the moon in hopes of seeing her.

Other Chinese gods and goddesses:
Yuelao 月老 – Chinese god of love
Fuxing 福星 – Chinese god of happiness
Gonggong 共工 – Chinese god of water
ZhuGeliang 诸葛亮 – Chinese god of wisdom
Tudiye 土地爷 – Chinese earth god
XieZhi 獬豸 – Chinese god of justice
Shennongshi 神农氏 – Chinese god of medicine
Jiutianxuannv 九天玄女 – Chinese goddess of war
Xihe 羲和 – Chinese god of sun

Source: https://www.chinawhisper.com/top-10-most-well-known-chinese-gods-and-goddesses/

Did You Know {23} ~ What Do All Mythologies Have In Common?

Many eighteenth and nineteenth century scholars believed that all world mythologies showed signs of having evolved from a single mythical theme.

There are over a hundred different world mythologies that we know of today. Among these are the Greek, Roman, Norse, Etruscan, Celtic, Slavic, Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Babylonian, Arabian, Islamic, Hindu, Buddhist, Chinese, and many more myths.

Anyone with the knowledge of more than one of these world mythologies would realize that there are some glaring similarities between them including ~

~Creation ~ From Chaos Or Nothingness ~ Similar creation myths involving the world being created out of chaos or a vast, empty, nothingness can be found in the myths of ancient Babylon (the Enûma Eliš myth), ancient Greece (the golden egg laid by Nyx or Night), the Book of Genesis (Elohim creating the heavens and earth in six days), and in Norse mythology (the yawning void named Ginnungagap), among numerous others.

~Sacrifice For Creation ~ Many cultures have stories about divine figures whose death creates an essential part of reality. In Indian Vedic mythology, the Purusha Sukta narrates that all things were made out of the mangled limbs of Purusha, a magnified non-natural man, who was sacrificed by the gods. Similarly, the Chinese myth of Pangu and the Norse myth of Ymir both tell of a cosmic giant who was killed to create the world. A myth from the Wemale people of Seram Island, Indonesia, tells of a miraculously-conceived girl named Hainuwele, whose murdered corpse sprouts into the people’s staple food crops.

~The Great Floods ~A flood myth is a narrative in which a great flood, usually sent by a deity or deities, destroys civilization, often in an act of divine retribution. In the Genesis mythology of the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh (God) decides to flood the earth because of the depth of the sinful state of mankind. That’s where we get Noah’s ark. The Hindu myth of Manu (found in the Satapatha Brahmana and the Puranas) is similar to that of Noah’s story, albeit less popularly known today. A similar theme is seen in the Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh, Mesopotamian flood stories, Deucalion’s story in Greek mythology, and Bergelmir in Norse Mythology.

~Centre Of The World ~ Many world mythologies mention a place that sits at the center of the world and acts as a point of contact between different levels of the universe. Vedic India, ancient China, and the ancient Germans all had myths featuring a “Cosmic Tree” whose branches reach heaven and whose roots reach hell. Mount Meru is a sacred mountain with five peaks in Hindu, Jain and Buddhist cosmology and is considered to be the center of all the physical, metaphysical and spiritual universes. Yggdrasil is the tree connecting the nine worlds in Norse cosmology. In Greek mythology, Omphalos stones are considered to be the “navel” of the world.

Mythology {3} ~ Gods & Goddesses {3} ~ The Egyptians

1. Ra (Re)

God of the sun, order, kings and the sky; creator of the universe. One of the most popular and long-lasting Egyptian gods.

The Egyptians believed Ra sailed across the sky in a boat each day (representing sunlight) and travelled through the underworld at night (representing night). Faced a daily battle with Apep, the celestial serpent, while he was making his way through the underworld.

Ra is depicted with the body of a man, the head of a falcon and a sun-disk (with cobra) resting on his head.

Ra was later merged with several different gods, such the local Theban deity Amun. Together they created the combined deity ‘Amun-Ra’.

2. Ptah

God of craftsmen and architects (monumental and non-monumental); chief deity of the city of Memphis. Believed to have designed the shape of the Earth. Consort of Sekhmet.

3. Sekhmet

Consort of Ptah; daughter of Ra. Goddess of war and destruction, but also healing. Sekhmet is most famously depicted with leonine qualities.

4. Geb

God of the Earth; father of snakes. Husband of Nut; father of Osiris, Isis, Set, Nephthys and Horus (the elder). It was said that his laugh caused earthquakes. Together with his wife Nut, they are portrayed as encompassing earth and sky.

5. Osiris

Osiris sits on his throne in the Underworld, accompanied by his two sisters: Isis and Nephthys.

One of the oldest and most enduring of the Egyptian gods. According to the ‘Osiris myth’ he was the eldest of the 5 gods, born of Geb and Nut; initially Lord of the Earth – god of fertility and life; murdered by a resentful Set, his younger brother; temporarily resurrected by Isis, his sister-wife, to conceive Horus.

Became the Lord of the Underworld and Judge of the Dead; Father of Anubis and Horus.

6. Horus (the Younger)

God of the Sky; son of Osiris and Isis. Defeated Set, his uncle, after Osiris took his place among the dead. Restored order to the land of the living but loses his left eye in the fighting before defeating Set. After banishing his uncle, Horus became the new king of Egypt.

Horus is associated with two principal symbols: the Eye of Horus and the falcon.

The eye of Horus became a powerful symbol in ancient Egypt, representing sacrifice, healing, restoration and protection.

7. Isis

The mother of all Pharaohs; wife of Osiris; mother of Horus; daughter of Geb and Nut. Closely associated with the earlier Egyptian goddess Hathor and was considered ‘Mother of the Gods’ – selfless in providing aid to Pharaohs and the people of Egypt.

By the 1st Millennium BCE, she had become one of the most popular Egyptian goddesses and worship of her soon spread outside Egypt to Greece and Rome. Common symbols of Isis include the kite (bird), the scorpion and the empty throne.

8. Set

God of war, chaos and storms; lord of the red desert land; brother of Osiris and Isis; uncle of Horus the younger; son of Geb and Nut. Murders Osiris, his elder brother, out of resentment and jealousy, but is in turn defeated by Horus and eventually driven from the land and into the desert (other accounts say Set is killed).

Though Set remained the archetypal villain in Egyptian mythology – the antithesis of Osiris – he remained popular. He became closely-linked with the Christian Satan.

Set is often depicted with the head of an unknown animal: the Set animal.

9. Anubis

The god of embalming and of the dead; patron of lost souls; the son of Osiris and Nepthys (according to Osiris myth).

Often depicted with the body of a man and the head of a jackal, the Egyptians believed Anubis watched over the dead and the process of mummification. Replaced by Osiris as God of the Dead in early 3rd millennium BC.

10. Thoth

God of writing, magic, wisdom, science and the moon; regularly depicted in Egyptian art either in the form of a baboon or with the head of an ibis. He played a key role in advising the gods, such as Osiris when he is making his judgement on the dead.

Thoth served as the record keeper for the gods and regularly reported to Ra, the sun god; he was believed to be the inventor of the written word.

11. Sobek

God of crocodiles, wetlands and surgery; associated with fertility, but also danger. Sometimes he was shown as a large crocodile, similar to those found in the River Nile; other times he was shown with the body of a man and the head of a crocodile.

Priests of Sobek honoured the god by keeping and feeding live crocodiles within the temple. When they died, these crocodiles were mummified – just like the Pharaohs of Egypt. According to the Greek historian Herodotus, anyone killed by a crocodile in the city of ‘Crocodilopolis’ (Faiyum) were considered divine.

12. Bastet

Goddess of cats, fertility, childbirth and women’s secrets; warder away of evil spirits and misfortune from the home; feline defender of the innocent daughter of Ra.

Batet was one of the longest and most popular of Egyptian deities; Egyptians came from far and wide to the festival of Bastet at Bubastis.

Source: https://www.historyhit.com/important-gods-and-goddesses-of-ancient-egypt/

Mythology {3} ~ Gods & Goddesses {2} ~ The Greeks

ACHELOUS
The patron god of the “silver-swirling” Achelous River.

AEOLUS
Greek god of the winds and air

AETHER
Primordial god of the upper air, light, the atmosphere, space and heaven.

ALASTOR
God of family feuds and avenger of evil deeds.

APOLLO
Olympian god of music, poetry, art, oracles, archery, plague, medicine, sun, light and knowledge.

ARES
God of war. Represented the physical, violent and untamed aspect of war.

ARISTAEUS
Minor patron god of animal husbandry, bee-keeping, and fruit trees. Son of Apollo.

ASCLEPIUS
God of medicine, health, healing, rejuvenation and physicians.

ATLAS
The Primordial Titan of Astronomy. Condemned by Zeus to carry the world on his back after the Titans lost the war.

ATTIS
A minor god of vegetation, fruits of the earth and rebirth.

BOREAS
A wind god (Anemoi) and Greek god of the cold north wind and the bringer of winter. Referred to as “The North Wind”.

CAERUS
Minor god of opportunity, luck and favorable moments.

CASTOR
One of the twins, Castor and Pollux, known as Dioskouri. Zeus transformed them into the constellation Gemini

CERUS
The large and powerful wild bull tamed by Persephone and turned into the Taurus constellation.

CHAOS
The nothingness that all else sprung from. A god who filled the gap between Heaven and Earth and created the first beings Gaia, Tartarus, Uranus, Nyx and Erebos.

CHARON
The Ferryman of Hades. Took the newly dead people across the rivers Styx and Acheron to the Greek underworld if they paid him three obolus (a Greek silver coin).

CRONOS
The god of time. Not to be confused with Cronus, the Titan father of Zeus.

CRIOS
The Titan god of the heavenly constellations and the measure of the year..

CRONUS
God of agriculture, leader and the youngest of the first generation of Titans and father of the Titans. Not to be confused with Cronos, god of time.

DINLAS
Guardian god of the ancient city Lamark, where wounded heroes could find comfort and heal after battle. He was the son of Aphrodite.

DEIMOS
Deimos is the personification of dread and terror.

DIONYSUS
An Olympian god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, religious ecstasy and theatre.

EREBUS
Primordial god of darkness.

EROS
God of sexual desire, attraction, love and procreation.

EURUS
One of the wind god known as Anemoi and god of the unlucky east wind. Referred to as “The East Wind”.

GLAUCUS
A fisherman who became immortal upon eating a magical herb, an Argonaut who may have built and piloted the Argo, and became a god of the sea.

HADES
God of the Dead and Riches and King of the Underworld.

HELIOS
God of the Sun and also known as Sol.

HEPHAESTUS
God of fire, metalworking, stone masonry, forges and the art of sculpture. Created weapons for the gods and married to Aphrodite.

HERACLES
The greatest of the Greek heroes, he became god of heroes, sports, athletes, health, agriculture, fertility, trade, oracles and divine protector of mankind. Known as the strongest man on Earth.

HERMES
God of trade, thieves, travelers, sports, athletes, and border crossings, guide to the Underworld and messenger of the gods.

HESPERUS
The Evening Star – the planet VENUS in the evening.

HYMENAIOS
God of marriage ceremonies, inspiring feasts and song.

HYPNOS
The Greek god of sleep.

KRATOS
God of strength and power.

MOMUS
God of satire, mockery, censure, writers and poets and a spirit of evil-spirited blame and unfair criticism.

MORPHEUS
God of dreams and sleep – has the ability to take any human form and appear in dreams.

NEREUS
The Titan god of the sea before Poseidon and father of the Nereids (nymphs of the sea).

NOTUS
Another Anemoi (wind god) and Greek god of the south wind. Known as “The South Wind”.

OCEANUS
Titan god of the ocean. Believed to be the personification of the World Ocean, an enormous river encircling the world.

ONEIROI
Black-winged daimons that personified dreams.

PAEAN
The physician of the Olympian gods.

PALLAS
The Titan god of warcraft and of the springtime campaign season.

PAN
God of nature, the wild, shepherds, flocks, goats, mountain wilds, and is often associated with sexuality. Also a satyr (half man, half-goat).

PHOSPHORUS
The Morning Star – THE PLANET VENUS as it appears in the morning.

PLUTUS
The Greek god of wealth.

POLLUX
Twin brother of Castor, together known as the Dioskouri, that were transformed into the constellation Gemini.

PONTUS
ancient, pre-Olympian sea-god of the deep sea, one of the Greek primordial deities and son of Gaia.

POSEIDON
Olympian Greek god of the sea, earthquakes, storms, and horses.

PRIAPUS
Minor rustic fertility god, protector of flocks, fruit plants, bees and gardens and known for having an enormous penis.

PRICUS
The immortal father of sea-goats, made into the Capricorn constellation.

PROMETHEUS
Titan god of forethought and crafty counsel who was given the task of moulding mankind out of clay.

PRIMORDIAL
A group of gods that came before all else.

TARTARUS
The god of the deep abyss, a great pit in the depths of the underworld, and father of Typhon.

THANATOS
A minor god and the god of death.

TRITON
Messenger of the sea and the son of Poseidon and Amphitrite.

TYPHON
The deadliest MONSTER in Greek mythology and “Father of All Monsters”. Last son of Gaia, fathered by Tartarus and god of monsters, storms, and volcanoes. He challenged Zeus for control of Mount Olympus.

URANUS
Primordial god of the sky and heavens, and father of the Titans.

ZELUS
The god of dedication, emulation, eager rivalry, envy, jealousy, and zeal.

ZEPHYRUS
A wind god (Anemoi). God of the west wind and known as “The West Wind”.

ZEUS
God of the sky, lightning, thunder, law, order, justice, King of the Gods and the “Father of Gods and men”.

Source: https://greekgodsandgoddesses.net/gods/

Mythology {3} ~ Gods & Goddesses {1} ~ Japanese

Major Deities
Amaterasu
Amaterasu is the sun goddess of Japan, the central goddess of Shinto, and the center of Japanese spiritual life. As the mythical ancestor of the Japanese Imperial Family, she forms the basis of their right to rule.

Izanagi
Izanagi is one of the first gods of Shinto’s cosmology. Together with Izanami, his female counterpart, he created the islands of Japan and populated them with many kami. Though he suffered a great tragedy, he went on to rule the Heavens and later help his daughter Amaterasu ascend to the divine throne.

Susanoo
Susanoo is the Japanese god of the sea and storms. A chaotic, stubborn, and foolhardy soul, he is also brother of Amaterasu, the Rising Sun and Queen of the Heavens. His quarrels with his sister eventually put him in conflict with Orochi, the eight-headed dragon.

Tsukuyomi
Tsukuyomi is the Japanese moon god, a proud deity who represents the beauty and power of the moon. He committed an egregious crime in front of his wife Amaterasu, and was forbidden from ever seeing her again.

Inari
Inari is the kami of prosperity, rice, smithing, cunning, and craftsmanship. Portrayed variously as male, female, and androgynous, Inari is a complex and popular deity worshiped for more than a thousand years throughout Japan. Their prominence has led to the creation of a special type of shrine, focused primarily on smithing and rice cultivation as well as the preservation of foxes.

Raijin
Raijin is the Japanese god of storms, a spirit of destruction and chaos who throws lightning and powerful thunderbolts while riding atop dark clouds. He is always accompanied by his companion gods, Fujin and Raitaro.

Fujin
Fujin is a Japanese god of the wind, a demon born of the underworld who is a destructive force of nature, controlling all the winds of the world. He appears alongside his brother, the thunder demon Raijin.

Ame-no-Uzume
Ame-no-Uzume is the Shinto goddess of dawn, an inventor of dances and comedy, whose positive self-image and quick thinking helped bring the sun goddess Amaterasu back to the world.

Ebisu
The Japanese god of luck and prosperity, Ebisu is a manifestation of the abundance of the sea. He is always shown with a smile and a laugh. Though he was rejected at birth, Ebisu would go on to become a benevolent, kind kami and one of the Seven Lucky Gods.

Ninigi
Ninigi introduced rice and civilization to Japan, then founded the Japanese Imperial family. He is the grandson of Great Amaterasu, the goddess of the heavens and the sun.

Source: https://mythopedia.com/japanese-mythology/gods/

Mythology {2} ~ Creation Stories {11} ~ The Norse

Muspell
The first world to exist was Muspell, a place of light and heat whose flames are so hot that those who are not native to that land cannot endure it.
Surt sits at Muspell’s border, guarding the land with a flaming sword. At the end of the world he will vanquish all the gods and burn the whole world with fire.

Ginnungagap and Niflheim
Beyond Muspell lay the great and yawning void named Ginnungagap, and beyond Ginnungagap lay the dark, cold realm of Niflheim.
Ice, frost, wind, rain and heavy cold emanated from Niflheim, meeting in Ginnungagap the soft air, heat, light, and soft air from Muspell.

Ymir
Where heat and cold met appeared thawing drops, and this running fluid grew into a giant frost ogre named Ymir.
Frost ogres
Ymir slept, falling into a sweat. Under his left arm there grew a man and a woman. And one of his legs begot a son with the other. This was the beginning of the frost ogres.
Audhumla
Thawing frost then became a cow called Audhumla. Four rivers of milk ran from her teats, and she fed Ymir.
Buri, Bor, and Bestla
The cow licked salty ice blocks. After one day of licking, she freed a man’s hair from the ice. After two days, his head appeared. On the third day the whole man was there. His name was Buri, and he was tall, strong, and handsome.
Buri begot a son named Bor, and Bor married Bestla, the daughter of a giant.

Odin, Vili, and Vé
Bor and Bestla had three sons: Odin was the first, Vili the second, and Vé the third.
It is believed that Odin, in association with his brothers, is the ruler of heaven and earth. He is the greatest and most famous of all men.

The death of Ymir
Odin, Vili, and Vé killed the giant Ymir.
When Ymir fell, there issued from his wounds such a flood of blood, that all the frost ogres were drowned, except for the giant Bergelmir who escaped with his wife by climbing onto a lur [a hollowed-out tree trunk that could serve either as a boat or a coffin]. From them spring the families of frost ogres.

Earth, trees, and mountains
The sons of Bor then carried Ymir to the middle of Ginnungagap and made the world from him. From his blood they made the sea and the lakes; from his flesh the earth; from his hair the trees; and from his bones the mountains. They made rocks and pebbles from his teeth and jaws and those bones that were broken.
Dwarfs
Maggots appeared in Ymir’s flesh and came to life. By the decree of the gods they acquired human understanding and the appearance of men, although they lived in the earth and in rocks.
Sky, clouds, and stars
From Ymir’s skull the sons of Bor made the sky and set it over the earth with its four sides. Under each corner they put a dwarf, whose names are East, West, North, and South.
The sons of Bor flung Ymir’s brains into the air, and they became the clouds.

Then they took the sparks and burning embers that were flying about after they had been blown out of Muspell, and placed them in the midst of Ginnungagap to give light to heaven above and earth beneath. To the stars they gave appointed places and paths.

The earth was surrounded by a deep sea. The sons of Bor gave lands near the sea to the families of giants for their settlements.

Midgard
To protect themselves from the hostile giants, the sons of Bor built for themselves an inland stonghold, using Ymir’s eyebrows. This stonghold they named Midgard.
Ask and Embla
While walking along the sea shore the sons of Bor found two trees, and from them they created a man and a woman.
Odin gave the man and the woman spirit and life. Vili gave them understanding and the power of movement. Vé gave them clothing and names. The man was named Ask [Ash] and the woman Embla [Elm?]. From Ask and Embla have sprung the races of men who lived in Midgard.

Asgard
In the middle of the world the sons of Bor built for themselves a stronghold named Asgard, called Troy by later generations. The gods and their kindred lived in Asgard, and many memorable events have happened there.
In Asgard was a great hall named Hlidskjálf. Odin sat there on a high seat. From there he could look out over the whole world and see what everyone was doing. He understood everything that he saw.

Odin, Frigg, and the Æsir
Odin married Frigg, the daughter of Fjörgvin. From this family has come all the kindred that inhabited ancient Asgard and those kingdoms that belonged to it. Members of this family are called the Æsir, and they are all divinities. This must be the reason why Odin is called All-Father. He is the father of all the gods and men and of everything that he and his power created.
Thor
The earth was Odin’s daughter and his wife as well. By her he had his first son, Thor. Might and strength were Thor’s characteristics. By these he dominates every living creature.
Bifröst
As all informed people know, the gods built a bridge from earth to heaven called Bifröst. Some call it the rainbow. It has three colors and is very strong, made with more skill and cunning than other structures. But strong as it is, it will break when the sons of Muspell ride out over it. The gods are not to blame that this structure will then break. Bifröst is a good bridge, but there is nothing in this world that can be relied on when the sons of Muspell are on the warpath.
Yggdrasil
The chief sanctuary of the gods is by the ash tree Yggdrasil. There they hold their daily court. Yggdrasil is the best and greatest of all trees. Its branches spread out over the whole world and reach up over heaven.

Source: https://www.pitt.edu/~dash/creation.html