In Hindu and yogic philosophy, amanaska describes a mind that is free of desires and thoughts. The term comes from the Sanskrit prefix, a, meaning “not” or “without,” and manas, meaning “mind.” It, therefore, translates as “without mind” and refers to samadhi, which is a deep state of meditation in which thoughts and breathing cease.
Amanaska is also the name of an 11th- or 12th-century Raja yoga text that, among other things, teaches sambhavi mudra (eyebrow center gazing) to achieve this state of no thoughts.
Astronomy is one of humanity’s oldest sciences and it’s ts basic activity is to study the sky and learn about what we see in the universe. Observational astronomy is an activity that amateur observers enjoy as a hobby and pastime and was the first type of astronomy humans did. There are millions of people in the world who stargaze regularly from their backyards or personal observatories. Most aren’t necessarily trained in the science, but simply love to watch the stars. Others are trained but do not make their living at doing the science of Astronomy and chose to use Astronomy as a hobby.
On the professional research side, there are more than 11,000 astronomers who are trained to do in-depth studies of the stars and galaxies. From them and their work, we get our basic understanding of the universe. It’s such an interesting topic and raises many astronomy-related questions in people’s minds about the cosmos itself, how it got started, what’s out there, and how we explore it.
When people hear the word “astronomy”, they usually think of stargazing. That’s actually how it got started — by people looking at the sky and charting what they saw. “Astronomy” comes from two old Greek terms astron for “star” and nomia for “law”, or “laws of the stars”. That idea actually underlies the history of astronomy: a long road of figuring out what objects in the sky are and what laws of nature govern them. To reach an understanding of cosmic objects, people had to do a lot of observing. That showed them the motions of objects in the sky, and led to the first scientific comprehension of what they might be.
Throughout human history, people have “done” astronomy and eventually found that their observations of the sky gave them clues to the passage of time. It should be no surprise that people began to to use the sky more than 15,000 years ago. It provided handy keys for navigation and calendar-making thousands of years ago. With the invention of such tools as the telescope, observers began to learn more about the physical characteristics of the stars and planets, which led them to wonder about their origins.
The study of the sky moved from a cultural and civic practice to the realm of science and mathematics.
“San Pedro (Trichocereus/Echinopsis pachanoi) is a thin, columnar cactus native to the Andes mountains in South America (Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador and Peru) that contains mescaline—one of the longest-studied psychedelics in the world—and the first to be labeled with the term “psychedelic.”
San Pedro has been an important element to the spiritual ceremonies of various indigenous cultures for thousands of years. In the context of these ceremonies, the San Pedro experience is known for being empathogenic (similar to MDMA) and potentially life-changing, promoting radical introspection, healing, and a sense of wonder and awe.
Traditionally, San Pedro has been consumed either on its own or with other plants in a ceremonial brew called cimora. While its use as a psychedelic is technically illegal in the US, the plant itself can be found decorating yards and gardens across the country. It can also be found in abundance at the witches’ markets of Peru (as San Pedro or Huachuma), Bolivia (as Achuma), and Ecuador (as Aguacolla or Gigantón).
San Pedro is a potent psychedelic, and a San Pedro ceremony can be intense and powerful, in both positive and negative ways. Though everyone will undergo a unique and individual experience, there are some general things you can expect.
What to expect After consuming San Pedro, most people start to feel the effects within 15-40 minutes, but it could take up to three hours to peak. Coming down can take another three hours, and the whole experience usually lasts 10 hours or so. San Pedro also usually leaves a lasting afterglow, which can make it difficult to sleep after the effects wear off.
Many people are surprised at how different San Pedro (and mescaline, in general) is from other psychedelics they’ve tried. San Pedro can leave you feeling relaxed and in control, for instance, even if you’re tripping heavily.  One user compared its effects to MDMA, but felt they were “more amazing.” “Mescaline didn’t feel like rolling [being high on MDMA],” he said, “Rolling felt like mescaline.” The same user went on to say that it was “like all the best effects from all the drugs all put into one… the great body feeling and incredible empathy and understanding of ecstasy… the focus and energy and drive of acid… the journey effect that I always enjoyed from shrooms… It was the soberest we had ever felt in our life.”
When the effects of San Pedro first hit, it’s common to feel drowsy or dizzy, often with a sense of tingling or electricity in the veins. Nausea, vomiting, and perspiration are also common on the come-up.
San Pedro usually produces visual effects, including whirlpools of colored light, flashes in the peripheral vision, kaleidoscopic patterns, and white, ghostlike outlines around people. “Out-of-body” experiences are also common, as is synesthesia (e.g. “feeling” and “smelling” sights and sounds), mild depersonalization, and distortions of spatial awareness. At the same time, ordinary things around you can appear more interesting, beautiful, and amazingly mystical—qualities that define the mescaline experience.
All of this often culminates in a clear and connected thought, self-realization, empathy, and euphoria. However, “bad trips” and dysphoric symptoms may be more common among people who don’t pay attention to set and setting and/or have histories of mental illness.”
The Sun face is an important cultural symbol of the Zuni people and represents the Sun Father, one of their three main kachinas or deities. It is found in all sorts of Zuni art objects, from jewelry to fetishes to rugs to pottery. Practicing an agricultural lifestyle like the other Native American tribes, the Zuni had a keen understanding of the relationship between different crops and different seasons. They recognized the crucial impact of the Sun on the agricultural output.
For the Zuni, the Sun symbolized abundance, continuity, stability, positive energy, hope, happiness, and peace. They associated it with the warmth that made life and growth possible and believed it brought playfulness and joy to children and good fortune and prosperity to families. So, praying to the Sun was a critical part of Zuni culture.
The Zuni incorporated their respect for the Sun into their jewelry in form of the Sun face. The traditional Sunface represents the finest in Zuni inlay artistry and craftsmanship. It is typically made from turquoise, mother-of-pearl, red coral and jet. Turquoise is believed to be a spiritual stone of oneness and unity with self as well as the spiritual and physical realms; mother-of-pearl represents imagination, intuition, sensitivity, adaptability, and decision-making; coral is considered protective and soothing; while black jet (fossilized wood) is associated with stability and protection.
The Sunface is generally crafted as a circular motif and its center inlay represents the face of Sun. The forehead is normally divided into two sections that symbolize the existence of a person as a unique individual and also a part of the family. The two sections also represent the non-stop cycle of sunrise and sunset. The lower part of the Sunface contains rectangular eyes and around the mouth that again symbolizes the continuity of life. The face is surrounded by a feather-like design.
“Nominative determinism is the hypothesis that people tend to gravitate towards areas of work that fit their names. The term was first used in the magazine New Scientist in 1994, after the magazine’s humorous “Feedback” column noted several studies carried out by researchers with remarkably fitting surnames. These included a book on polar explorations by Daniel Snowman and an article on urology by researchers named Splatt and Weedon. These and other examples led to light-hearted speculation that some sort of psychological effect was at work. Since the term appeared, nominative determinism has been an irregularly recurring topic in New Scientist, as readers continue to submit examples. Nominative determinism differs from the related concept aptronym, and its synonyms ‘aptonym’, ‘namephreak’, and ‘Perfect Fit Last Name’ (captured by the Latin phrase nomen est omen ‘the name is a sign’), in that it focuses on causality. ‘Aptronym’ merely means the name is fitting, without saying anything about why it has come to fit.
The idea that people are drawn to professions that fit their name was suggested by psychologist Carl Jung, citing as an example Sigmund Freud who studied pleasure and whose surname means ‘joy’. A few recent empirical studies have indicated that certain professions are disproportionately represented by people with appropriate surnames (and sometimes given names), though the methods of these studies have been challenged. One explanation for nominative determinism is implicit egotism, which states that humans have an unconscious preference for things they associate with themselves.”