In ancient Greece and Rome, doctors used spider webs to make bandages for their patients. Spider webs supposedly have natural antiseptic and anti-fungal properties, which can help keep wounds clean and prevent infection. It’s also said that spider webs are rich in vitamin K, which helps promote clotting. So, next time you’re out of Band-Aids, just head to your attic and grab some “webicillin.”
The Pentacle is an encircled Pentagram. A Pentagram is an ancient spiritual symbol shaped as a five-pointed star with one point aligned upwards. It is considered to be representative of the five elements from which man is made, namely fire, air, water, earth and spirit. Often the terms Pentacle and Pentagram are used interchangeably, but there is a slight difference between the two. Some people believe that a Pentagram is not circled, while a Pentacle has the star enclosed by a circle. Still, others say that a Pentagram is a diagram or drawing of the star and is referred to as a Pentacle only when it takes the form of a physical object.
The Pentacle/Pentagram has been one of the most persistent and powerful symbols in our history and was revered by nearly all ancient cultures, be it Egyptian, Greek, Babylonian, Chinese, Indian or Mayan. The mystic icon is considered to hold several layers of symbolism. It is viewed as a symbol of life, love, light, unity, wholeness, and quest for divine knowledge. The Pentacle has always been associated with divine protective powers and was used for protection from the evil forces, demons, etc.
In the present times, the Pentacle and the Pentagram are much-respected symbols used by the neo-Pagans and Wiccans.
The Eye of God is a symbol that is representative of divine watchfulness, of the Supreme Being taking care of the entire universe. It is shown as a single human eye enclosed in a triangle and often surrounded by clouds or burst of light. Also known as the ‘All-Seeing Eye‘ and ‘Eye of Providence‘, the symbol has been used since the ancient times to signify the omniscience and omnipresence of God and His power, preserving and guarding character.
Throughout history, eye iconography has been used in different cultures and religions. The Hebrew literature talks of the watchful eyes of the Lord looking over all creation. The Egyptians have the Eye of Horus that symbolizes protection, good health, and royal power. In Hinduism, there are references to Lord Shiva’s ‘third eye’ and in Buddhism, the Buddha is known as ‘Eye of the world’. In Christianity, the triangle enclosing the eye is symbolic of the Holy Trinity, while the clouds of rays of light around it represent divinity and spiritual illumination.
The Eye of God symbol has a significant Masonic connection too. It appeared as a part of Freemasonry iconography in 1797. The Freemasons view God as the Great Architect of the Universe and the symbol of His vigilant eye serves as a reminder to all Masons that He is always watching their thoughts and actions.
The symbol has been used on the currency of some countries such as the U.S. one dollar bill, Ukrainian 500 hryvnia note and Estonian 50 krooni bill. It also appears on several official seals and coats of arms, including the Coat of Arms of Belarus, the University of Mississippi seal, the University of Chile seal, etc. The Eye of God has even been depicted on many buildings, business logos, etc., which reflects the impact the symbol has had on the common man’s consciousness.
A Danish theologian, social critic, and philosopher, Kierkegaard is viewed by many as the most important existentialist philosopher. His work dealt largely with the idea of the single individual. His thinking tended to prioritize concrete reality over abstract thought. Within this construct, he viewed personal choice and commitment as preeminent. This orientation played a major part in his theology as well. He focused on the importance of the individual’s subjective relationship with God, and his work addressed the themes of faith, Christian love, and human emotion. Because Kierkegaard’s work was at first only available in Danish, it was only after his work was translated that his ideas proliferated widely throughout Western Europe. This proliferation was a major force in helping existentialism take root in the 20th century.
Kierkegaard’s Big Ideas
~Explored the idea of objective vs. subjective truths, and argued that theological assertions were inherently subjective and arbitrary because they could not be verified or invalidated by science;
~Was highly critical of the entanglement between State and Church;
~First described the concept of angst, defining it as a dread that comes from anxieties over choice, freedom, and ambiguous feelings.
Kierkegaard’s Key Works
~The Concept of Dread (1844)
~Concluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments, Volume 1 (1846)
~Practice in Christianity (1850)
Know thyself deathless and able to know all things, all arts, sciences, the way of every life. Become higher than the highest height and lower than the lowest depth. Amass in thyself all senses of animals, fire, water, dryness and moistness. Think of thyself in all places at the same time, earth, sea, sky, not yet born, in the womb, young, old, dead, and in the after death state. ~ Ancient Egyptian Proverb
The study of the wisdom teachings should be a continuous process in which the teachings become the predominant factor of life rather than the useless and oftentimes negative and illusory thoughts of those who are ignorant of spiritual truths. ~ Ancient Egyptian Proverb
The Runes are a part of a system of Spiritual belief of the Norse that is older than Christianity and is as beautiful and complex as the Buddhist thinking of the Hindu and those of the Eastern traditions. Thousands of years ago the Runes evolved in a culture that understood the essential elements of life; the balance of personal power through self-mastery.
The Runes, since their inception some 3 thousand years ago, have taken on a variety of ritualistic functions. There were Runes that influenced and corresponded with almost every aspect of human life, including birth Runes, death Runes, weather Runes, health Runes and love and marriage Runes. Runes were inscribed on amulets for protection, courage and luck in battle. They were employed for legal documents, for writing poetry, for invocations and divinations.
Each Runes is encoded with primal symbols which speak to our collective consciousness through shape, idea, meaning and intuition. Ancient symbols and meanings lay behind each Rune and they are very powerful on their own, or reading in conjunction with others to tell a story or give guidance.
Runes give insight and wisdom, which in turn teaches decision-making skills and gives us the tools which enable us to assess, consider and make wise choices for today and the future. The most beneficial gain of utilizing the Runes is self-empowerment, and with that comes personal responsibility.
Which ancient civilization developed the first writing system is a question that has generated much interest and a lot of debate. The confusion comes from the absence of enough artifacts to allow archaeologists and historians to say for sure whether they were looking at simply a collection of images, a proto-writing system or a proper writing system.
Jiahu symbols comprise one such collection of symbols that are believed by many to be the oldest written words. Jiahu symbols comprise 16 different signs, markings or pictograms found carved on tortoise shells over 8,500 years old. These shells were excavated from a burial ground unearthed at Jiahu, a Neolithic archaeologist site in Henan province in western China. Radiocarbon dating of the Jiahu site puts it between 6600 BC and 6200 BC.
The Neolithic Jiahu symbols predate the earliest recorded Mesopotamian writings by over 2,000 years, but it is doubtful whether they can really be called the oldest writing system. In fact, a number of researchers are skeptical of classifying them as a writing system. Some of the Jiahu symbols, such as the characters for ‘window’, ‘eye’ and numerals 8 and 20, have a striking similarity with a few characters of the Chinese script that is believed to have developed from oracle bone writing around 1200 BC during the reign of the Shang dynasty.
Such a long gap makes a connection between the two writing systems very unlikely and researchers are of the belief that the Jiahu symbols may be more of a sophisticated system of proto-writing than a technical writing system. They await the discovery of more artifacts before taking a conclusive and convincing decision about Jiahu symbols.
Chinese teacher, writer, and philosopher Confucius viewed himself as a channel for the theological ideas and values of the imperial dynasties that came before him. With an emphasis on family and social harmony, Confucius advocated for a way of life that reflected a spiritual and religious tradition, but which was also distinctly humanist and even secularist. Confucius — thought to be a contemporary of Taoist progenitor Lao-Tzu — had a profound impact on the development of Eastern legal customs and the emergence of a scholarly ruling class. Confucianism would engage in historic push-pull with the philosophies of Buddhism and Taoism, experiencing ebbs and flows in influence, its high points coming during the Han (206 BCE–220 CE), Tang (618–907 CE), and Song (960–1296 CE) Dynasties. As Buddhism became the dominant spiritual force in China, Confucianism declined in practice. However, it remains a foundational philosophy underlying Asian and Chinese attitudes toward scholarly, legal, and professional pursuits.
Confucius’ Big Ideas
~Developed a belief system focused on both personal and governmental morality through qualities such as justice, sincerity, and positive relationships with others;
~Advocated for the importance of strong family bonds, including respect for the elder, veneration of one’s ancestors, and marital loyalty;
~Believed in the value of achieving ethical harmony through skilled judgment rather than knowledge of rules, denoting that one should achieve morality through self-cultivation.
If you would know yourself, take yourself as starting point and go back to its source; your beginning will disclose your end. ~ Ancient Egyptian Proverb