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Philosophy {2} ~ The Six Branches Of Philosophy

Six Branches of Philosophy: Epistemology, Logic, Metaphysics, Ethics, Aesthetics, Political Philosophy.

Epistemology – the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (including limitations) of knowledge. It addresses four main questions. 1) What is knowledge? 2) How is knowledge acquired? 3) What do people know? 4) How do we know what we know?

Logic – is the study of reasoning. Logic is often divided into two parts, inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. The first is drawing general conclusions from specific examples, the second is drawing logical conclusions from definitions and axioms.

Metaphysics – is concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world. Cosmology and ontology are the two traditional branches of metaphysics. Cosmology seeks to understand the origin, evolution, structure, and ultimate fate of the universe at large, as well as the natural laws that keep it in order. Ontology is the investigation into what types of things there are in the world and what relations these things bear to one another. Ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or can be said to exist, and how such entities can be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities and differences. Before the development of modern science, scientific questions were addressed as a part of metaphysics known as “natural philosophy.” The scientific method, however, made natural philosophy an empirical and experimental activity unlike the rest of philosophy, and by the end of the eighteenth century it had begun to be called “science” in order to distinguish it from philosophy. Thereafter, metaphysics became the philosophical enquiry of a non-empirical character into the nature of existence.

Ethics – also known as moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy which seeks to address questions about morality; that is, about concepts like good and bad, right and wrong, justice, virtue, etc.

Aesthetics – is the branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty, art, taste, and the creation and appreciation of beauty. It is more scientifically defined as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste.

Political Philosophy – is the study of concepts such as liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever. Three central concerns of political philosophy have been the political economy by which property rights are defined and access to capital is regulated, the demands of justice in distribution and punishment, and the rules of truth and evidence that determine judgments in the law.