Tag Archives: Greek

Symbols {70} ~ Alpha & Omega

Alpha (Α) and Omega (Ω) represent the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. They are a Christian symbol that also represents God as used in the Book of Revelation in the Bible (Gauding, 2009). The phrase Alpha and Omega is derived from the one that quotes God as being the Alpha and the Omega in Revelation 1:8, 21:6, and 22:13, and is clarified two times with the extra title “the beginning and the end”. This phrase means that God and Jesus are both eternal (The New Bible Dictionary, n.d).

These symbols were used in early Christianity. The letters appear on the arms of the cross in early Christian paintings and sculptures, and in some jeweled crosses which have letters formed that hang in that way. Despite being Greek, the letters are more widespread in Western Christian paintings and sculptures than in Eastern Orthodox Christian ones. They are often portrayed as being on the left and right of Christ’s head together with his halo, and they have replaced the Christogram that is used in Orthodox paintings and sculptures. By using these symbols on his head, it indicates that in Christ, the beginning and the end are joined into one entity. These letters are often combined with the Cross, Chi-rho (the first two letters of the word for Christ in Greek), and other Christian symbols (Whittemore, 1987).

Symbols {67} ~ Tau

Tau refers to the nineteenth letter of the Greek alphabet. Its numerical value is 300. Tau came from the Phoenician letter, ‘taw’ and it further gave rise to the Roman letter ‘T’ and the Cyrillic letter ‘Te’. It is a very old symbol and has diverse connotations.

The ancient Greek considered Tau to be symbolic of life and resurrection, while ‘theta’, the 8th letter of the alphabet was used to denote death. In ancient Egypt, the Tau symbol was thought to represent a phallus and was also regarded as the marker for holy waters. Ancient mythology associates the symbol with the Greek deity Attis and the Roman god Mithra or Mithras. Several Western religious traditions and European cultures associate Tau with the crucifix.

According to Kabbalistic beliefs, the symbol refers to the mystical number three and signifies intuition, magic, creativity, and expansion. In the Freemasonry, Templar or Rosicrucian symbology, Tau stands for the all-pervasive God and Its 3 attributes of strength, wisdom, and harmony. The Tau image has been found in primitive glyphs and believed to be representative of the horizon, the place where the sky and the earth meet. The symbol is also considered to be a sign of the union of the objective and the subjective.

Philosophers {3} ~ Aristotle {384–322 BCE}

Aristotle is among the most important and influential thinkers and teachers in human history, often considered — alongside his mentor, Plato — to be a father of Western Philosophy.” Born in the northern part of ancient Greece, his writings and ideas on metaphysics, ethics, knowledge, and methodological inquiry are at the very root of human thought. Most philosophers who followed — both those who echoed and those who opposed his ideas — owed a direct debt to his wide-ranging influence. Aristotle’s enormous impact was a consequence both of the breadth of his writing and his personal reach during his lifetime.

In addition to being a philosopher, Aristotle was also a scientist, which led him to consider an enormous array of topics, and largely through the view that all concepts and knowledge are ultimately based on perception. A small sampling of topics covered in Aristotle’s writing includes physics, biology, psychology, linguistics, logic, ethics, rhetoric, politics, government, music, theatre, poetry, and metaphysics. He was also in a unique position to prevail directly over thinking throughout the known world, tutoring a young Alexander the Great at the request of the future conqueror’s father, Phillip II of Macedon. This position of influence gave Aristotle the means to establish the library at Lyceum, where he produced hundreds of writings on papyrus scrolls. And of course, it also gave him direct sway over the mind of a man who would one day command an empire stretching from Greece to northwestern India. The result was an enormous sphere of influence for Aristotle’s ideas, one that only began to be challenged by Renaissance thinkers nearly 2,000 years later.

Aristotle’s Big Ideas

  • Asserted the use of logic as a method of argument and offered the basic methodological template for analytical discourse;
  • Espoused the understanding that knowledge is built from the study of things that happen in the world, and that some knowledge is universal — a prevailing set of ideas throughout Western Civilization thereafter;
  • Defined metaphysics as “the knowledge of immaterial being,” and used this framework to examine the relationship between substance (a combination of matter and form) and essence, from which he devises that man is comprised from a unity of the two.

Aristotle’s Key Works ~
~The Metaphysics
~Nicomachean Ethics
~Poetics

Mythology {3} ~ Gods & Goddesses {2} ~ The Greeks

ACHELOUS
The patron god of the “silver-swirling” Achelous River.

AEOLUS
Greek god of the winds and air

AETHER
Primordial god of the upper air, light, the atmosphere, space and heaven.

ALASTOR
God of family feuds and avenger of evil deeds.

APOLLO
Olympian god of music, poetry, art, oracles, archery, plague, medicine, sun, light and knowledge.

ARES
God of war. Represented the physical, violent and untamed aspect of war.

ARISTAEUS
Minor patron god of animal husbandry, bee-keeping, and fruit trees. Son of Apollo.

ASCLEPIUS
God of medicine, health, healing, rejuvenation and physicians.

ATLAS
The Primordial Titan of Astronomy. Condemned by Zeus to carry the world on his back after the Titans lost the war.

ATTIS
A minor god of vegetation, fruits of the earth and rebirth.

BOREAS
A wind god (Anemoi) and Greek god of the cold north wind and the bringer of winter. Referred to as “The North Wind”.

CAERUS
Minor god of opportunity, luck and favorable moments.

CASTOR
One of the twins, Castor and Pollux, known as Dioskouri. Zeus transformed them into the constellation Gemini

CERUS
The large and powerful wild bull tamed by Persephone and turned into the Taurus constellation.

CHAOS
The nothingness that all else sprung from. A god who filled the gap between Heaven and Earth and created the first beings Gaia, Tartarus, Uranus, Nyx and Erebos.

CHARON
The Ferryman of Hades. Took the newly dead people across the rivers Styx and Acheron to the Greek underworld if they paid him three obolus (a Greek silver coin).

CRONOS
The god of time. Not to be confused with Cronus, the Titan father of Zeus.

CRIOS
The Titan god of the heavenly constellations and the measure of the year..

CRONUS
God of agriculture, leader and the youngest of the first generation of Titans and father of the Titans. Not to be confused with Cronos, god of time.

DINLAS
Guardian god of the ancient city Lamark, where wounded heroes could find comfort and heal after battle. He was the son of Aphrodite.

DEIMOS
Deimos is the personification of dread and terror.

DIONYSUS
An Olympian god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, religious ecstasy and theatre.

EREBUS
Primordial god of darkness.

EROS
God of sexual desire, attraction, love and procreation.

EURUS
One of the wind god known as Anemoi and god of the unlucky east wind. Referred to as “The East Wind”.

GLAUCUS
A fisherman who became immortal upon eating a magical herb, an Argonaut who may have built and piloted the Argo, and became a god of the sea.

HADES
God of the Dead and Riches and King of the Underworld.

HELIOS
God of the Sun and also known as Sol.

HEPHAESTUS
God of fire, metalworking, stone masonry, forges and the art of sculpture. Created weapons for the gods and married to Aphrodite.

HERACLES
The greatest of the Greek heroes, he became god of heroes, sports, athletes, health, agriculture, fertility, trade, oracles and divine protector of mankind. Known as the strongest man on Earth.

HERMES
God of trade, thieves, travelers, sports, athletes, and border crossings, guide to the Underworld and messenger of the gods.

HESPERUS
The Evening Star – the planet VENUS in the evening.

HYMENAIOS
God of marriage ceremonies, inspiring feasts and song.

HYPNOS
The Greek god of sleep.

KRATOS
God of strength and power.

MOMUS
God of satire, mockery, censure, writers and poets and a spirit of evil-spirited blame and unfair criticism.

MORPHEUS
God of dreams and sleep – has the ability to take any human form and appear in dreams.

NEREUS
The Titan god of the sea before Poseidon and father of the Nereids (nymphs of the sea).

NOTUS
Another Anemoi (wind god) and Greek god of the south wind. Known as “The South Wind”.

OCEANUS
Titan god of the ocean. Believed to be the personification of the World Ocean, an enormous river encircling the world.

ONEIROI
Black-winged daimons that personified dreams.

PAEAN
The physician of the Olympian gods.

PALLAS
The Titan god of warcraft and of the springtime campaign season.

PAN
God of nature, the wild, shepherds, flocks, goats, mountain wilds, and is often associated with sexuality. Also a satyr (half man, half-goat).

PHOSPHORUS
The Morning Star – THE PLANET VENUS as it appears in the morning.

PLUTUS
The Greek god of wealth.

POLLUX
Twin brother of Castor, together known as the Dioskouri, that were transformed into the constellation Gemini.

PONTUS
ancient, pre-Olympian sea-god of the deep sea, one of the Greek primordial deities and son of Gaia.

POSEIDON
Olympian Greek god of the sea, earthquakes, storms, and horses.

PRIAPUS
Minor rustic fertility god, protector of flocks, fruit plants, bees and gardens and known for having an enormous penis.

PRICUS
The immortal father of sea-goats, made into the Capricorn constellation.

PROMETHEUS
Titan god of forethought and crafty counsel who was given the task of moulding mankind out of clay.

PRIMORDIAL
A group of gods that came before all else.

TARTARUS
The god of the deep abyss, a great pit in the depths of the underworld, and father of Typhon.

THANATOS
A minor god and the god of death.

TRITON
Messenger of the sea and the son of Poseidon and Amphitrite.

TYPHON
The deadliest MONSTER in Greek mythology and “Father of All Monsters”. Last son of Gaia, fathered by Tartarus and god of monsters, storms, and volcanoes. He challenged Zeus for control of Mount Olympus.

URANUS
Primordial god of the sky and heavens, and father of the Titans.

ZELUS
The god of dedication, emulation, eager rivalry, envy, jealousy, and zeal.

ZEPHYRUS
A wind god (Anemoi). God of the west wind and known as “The West Wind”.

ZEUS
God of the sky, lightning, thunder, law, order, justice, King of the Gods and the “Father of Gods and men”.

Source: https://greekgodsandgoddesses.net/gods/