Tag Archives: Knowledge

Civilizations {3} ~ The Assyrians

~Centered on the Upper Tigris river in northern Mesopotamia, the Assyrians came to rule powerful empires at several times, the last of which grew to be the largest and most powerful empire the world had yet seen.

~At its peak, the Assyrian empire stretched from Cyprus in the Mediterranean Sea to Persia, and from the Caucasus Mountains (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan) to the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt. It was at the height of technological, scientific, and cultural achievements for its time.

~In the Old Assyrian period, Assyria established colonies in Asia Minor and the Levant, and asserted itself over southern Mesopotamia under king Ilushuma.

~Assyria experienced fluctuating fortunes in the Middle Assyrian period, with some of its kings finding themselves under the influence of foreign rulers while others eclipsed neighboring empires.

~Assyria became a great military power during the Neo-Assyrian period, and saw the conquests of large empires, such as Egyptians, the Phoenicians, the Hittites, and the Persians, among others.

~After its fall in the late 600s BCE, Assyria remained a province and geo-political entity under various empires until the mid-7th century CE.

Source: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-hccc-worldcivilization/chapter/the-sumerians/

~Shiksha~

Shiksha is a Sanskrit word that means “instruction,” “learning,” “lesson” and “study of skill.” It is one of the six auxiliary disciplines known as the Vedangas, which support the study of the Vedas and other Hindu scriptures.

Shiksha is the study of phonology, phonetics and pronunciation. The correct intonation, conjunction and disjunction of syllables are key components of shiksha. Shiksha also involves the study of Sanskrit letters and the way words are combined and expressed in a recitation.

~Desatita~

Desatita is a Sanskrit word that means “beyond space,” with desa meaning “space” and tita meaning “no.” However, the meaning in Sanskrit is deeper than simply “no space” or “beyond space.” More accurately, it means “limitless beyond space.”

Commonly used to describe philosophical concepts considered to be universal truths or our state of being, desatita is a way to describe the unbounded consciousness or the true Self. For example, our unbounded consciousness, when realized, is not confined by space.

~Pancha~

Pancha is a Sanskrit word that means “five.” In the context of Hinduism and yogic philosophy, the number five has significance in many key concepts and finds its way into religious symbolism as a sacred number. For example, the god, Shiva, is portrayed with five faces (panchamukha), each facing a different direction.

The list of pancha concepts is long, but one of the foundational ones is that of the five great elements, or pancha mahabhuta: akasha (ether), vayu (air), tejas (fire), jala (water) and prithvi (earth). These elements are believed to exist in everything in the universe. Ayurveda, the ancient medical system from India, manipulates and balances the elements to maintain health and cure disease.

~Taught Delusions~

From an early age, we were taught through so many channels: parents, romance films, society, and also the church that we would be here to find a partner for life, to have children, and to live happily ever after. This is such a firmly anchored pattern in many people that they are constantly desperate in search of the One, which makes them forget something crucial: namely to find themselves first.

~Dravya~

Dravya is a Sanskrit word that means “substances” or “entities.” It is used in Indian and yogic philosophy to describe the categories of being that comprise the substance of existence. In Jainism, dravya is made up of five or six categories of being (it varies by sect), while the Vaisheshika school of Hindu philosophy names nine substances.

In the traditional Indian medicinal practice known as Ayurveda, dravya can be a drug or other substance used to treat a disease or ailment or to promote health. The dravya has properties (guna) and action (karma). Dravya is, therefore, any mixture or substance applied externally or taken internally to treat disease, preserve health or ease pain.

According to the Jains, dravya is composed of five eternal categories of being, known as astikayas. They are:

Dharma ~ a moral virtue and that which allows beings to move
Adharma ~ the medium of rest and that which allows beings to stop moving
Akasha ~ the space in which all exists.
Pudgala ~ matter
Jiva ~ the soul
Kala, or time, was added as a sixth category of dravya by the Digambara sect.

According to Vaisheshika, dravya refers to nine substances. Five of the dravya substances are physical elements: prthivi (earth), ap (water), tejas (fire), vayu (air) and akasha (ether). The remaining four substances that comprise dravya are kala (time), dik (space), Atman (Soul or universal Self) and manas (mind or internal organ).