Kakasana is the Sanskrit name for a Hatha yoga pose in which the practitioner begins by squatting and placing the palms flat on the ground between the legs and directly under the shoulders. The body’s weight is shifted from the feet to the palms until the knees can balance on the backs of the arms above the bent elbows. To achieve good form, the practitioner must keep the fingers wide set, the shoulders down, the chest lifted and the gaze straight ahead.
Kakasana is a Sanskrit term translated as “crow pose” in English. The pronunciation of kakasana is said to imitate a crow’s call (“caw-caw” asana).
Hindu practices are customs specific to the world’s oldest major religion, Hinduism (also sometimes called Sanatana Dharma). But because Hinduism is a mixture of different traditions and beliefs, its practices vary depending on the type of Hinduism. For example, some Hindus believe in many gods, while others worship just a few or a single supreme deity. Even the name by which they worship the supreme god varies – Brahma, Shiva or Vishnu, among others.
Hinduism also includes practices for those traditions that ignore deities, instead seeking awareness of the higher Self through intense meditation. Yoga practice can be included in either of these forms of Hinduism and there are various types of yoga that are particularly sacred to Hindu tradition.
Welcome fellow souls to « The Human Family Crash Course Series, » a new project collaborated together by empress2inspire.blog and dios-raw.com. Together we will be working on a different topic for each crash course; our seventh topic is focused on «Magic». Each topic will have ten posts with posts on Mondays and Thursdays. We hope you enjoy our series and we look forward to knowing how our posts have inspired you!
In ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Rome, practitioners of magic exploited symbolic words, images, and rituals to achieve desired outcomes through supernatural means. Using magical acts, they attempted to control supernatural powers— gods, demons, spirits, or ghosts—to accomplish something beyond the scope of human capabilities. Here’s an attempt to understand the ancient magic practices and what they signified.
In ancient “binding magic,” it was all about the spells. Unlike modern-day magical phrases like, say, “bippity boppity boo,” practitioners of magic in ancient Greek and Rome used spells to “bind” people up to different outcomes in sporting events, business, and personal affairs related to love and even revenge. Binding spells had known formulas and named involved parties, like gods and people, and then connected them to actions or results. You could use a binding spell to invoke an upcoming athletic victory or ensure your happy marriage to a new partner—and to do so, you’d use powerful strings of words passed on by magicians or ordinary people.
One of the more charmingly bitter traditions of ancient Greece and Rome were “curse tablets”—spells written on lead, wax or stone that laid out the ways in which people had been wronged. Think of curse tablets as the takedowns of the ancient world: If someone disrespected or harmed you, you could head to your local magician and pay to curse them. People cursed people who hurt their family members, but they also cursed them when they committed crimes or even entered into court cases against them. Large caches of curse tablets have been found in Roman digs in the modern-day United Kingdom.
Of course, if someone dissed you, you also had the option of creating a tiny effigy to do harm to. Though sometimes compared to modern-day voodoo dolls, scholars still aren’t entirely sure what the tiny figurines used in binding magic in ancient Greece and Rome were for. What they do know is that the word “binding” was taken literally when it comes to these figures: They have been found in tiny coffins with bound hands and feet or mutilated bodies and seem to have been molded along with binding spells.
Just as today, the future was a source of concern in antiquity. This anxiety was mitigated by the use of a number of divinatory practices, including consultation with seers, oracles, and other specialists in predicting the future and interpreting signs and omens. In ancient Rome, astrologers, who read the movements of stars and constellations to determine the destiny of individuals, were commonly grouped with magicians as magical practitioners. Their power, derived from knowledge of the future, rendered them dangerous, with the result that they were frequently expelled from Rome throughout antiquity. In most societies from the ancient Mediterranean whose laws survive, offensive magic such as placing a curse was regarded as a crime. However, the legality of various divinatory practices changed according to time and culture.
Magic was a resource frequently used not just during life, but also after death. Many funerary practices incorporated magical elements. This was particularly the case in Egypt, where the intricate rituals of mummification ensured preservation of the body and soul for the afterlife. The placement of amulets over certain body parts during mummification and the preservation of organs in canopic jars protected the body for new life after death. The Egyptian Book of the Dead details these rituals, compiling spells that were painted or inscribed in the tomb and aided in achieving the ultimate restoration of life to the soul of the deceased. Similarly, mystery cults in ancient Greece and Rome had their own secret rituals that ensured an afterlife for their practitioners.
Hope this brings to light some of the ancient magic practices.
The six-pointed star, or what is commonly referred to as the Star of David, has been used in sacred traditions for centuries, even going back to King Solomon in the Old Testament. Symbolizing the ideal meditative state in Hinduism and magical ceremonies in occult practices, the hexagram can fit inside a perfect circle and is often associated with the heart chakra.
The four main goals of psychology are to describe, explain, predict and change the behavior and mental processes of others.
To Describe Describing a behavior or cognition is the first goal of psychology. This can enable researchers to develop general laws of human behavior.
For example, through describing the response of dogs to various stimuli, Ivan Pavlov helped develop laws of learning known as classical conditioning theory.
To Explain Once researchers have described general laws behavior, the next step is to explain how or why this trend occurs. Psychologists will propose theories which can explain a behavior.
To Predict Psychology aims to be able to predict future behavior from the findings of empirical research. If a prediction is not confirmed, then the explanation it is based on might need to be revised. For example, classical conditioning predicts that if a person associates a negative outcome with a stimuli they may develop a phobia or aversion of the stimuli.
To Change Once psychology has described, explained and made predictions about behavior, changing or controlling a behavior can be attempted.
For example, interventions based on classical conditioning, such as systematic desensitization, have been used to treat people with anxiety disorders including phobias.
Structuralism and functionalism have since been replaced by several dominant and influential approaches to psychology, each one underpinned by a shared set of assumptions of what people are like, what is important to study and how to study it.
Psychoanalysis, founded by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was the dominant paradigm in psychology during the early twentieth century. Freud believed that people could be cured by making conscious their unconscious thoughts and motivations, thus gaining insight.
Freud’s psychoanalysis was the original psychodynamic theory, but the psychodynamic approach as a whole includes all theories that were based on his ideas, e.g., Jung (1964), Adler (1927) and Erikson (1950).
The classic contemporary perspectives in psychology to adopt scientific strategies were the behaviorists, who were renowned for their reliance on controlled laboratory experiments and rejection of any unseen or unconscious forces as causes of behavior.
Later, the humanistic approach became the ‘third force’ in psychology and proposed the importance of subjective experience and personal growth.
During the 1960s and 1970s, psychology began a cognitive revolution, adopting a rigorous, scientific, lab-based scientific approach with application to memory, perception, cognitive development, mental illness, and much more.