RETINOIDS AND CAROTENE (Vitamin A; includes retinol, retinal, retinyl esters, and retinoic acid and are also referred to as “preformed” vitamin A. Beta carotene can easily be converted to vitamin A as needed.) Essential for vision Lycopene may lower prostate cancer risk. Keeps tissues and skin healthy. Plays an important role in bone growth and in the immune system. Diets rich in the carotenoids alpha carotene and lycopene seem to lower lung cancer risk. Carotenoids act as antioxidants. Foods rich in the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin may protect against cataracts. M: 900 mcg (3,000 IU) W: 700 mcg (2,333 IU).
THIAMIN (vitamin B1) Helps convert food into energy. Needed for healthy skin, hair, muscles, and brain and is critical for nerve function. M: 1.2 mg, W: 1.1 mg.
RIBOFLAVIN (vitamin B2) Helps convert food into energy. Needed for healthy skin, hair, blood, and brain. M: 1.3 mg, W: 1.1 mg.
NIACIN (vitamin B3, nicotinic acid) Helps convert food into energy. Essential for healthy skin, blood cells, brain, and nervous system. M: 16 mg, W: 14 mg 35 mg.
PANTOTHENIC ACID (vitamin B5) Helps convert food into energy. Helps make lipids (fats), neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, and hemoglobin. M: 5 mg, W: 5 mg.
PYRIDOXINE (vitamin B6, pyridoxal, pyridoxine, pyridoxamine) Aids in lowering homocysteine levels and may reduce the risk of heart disease. Helps convert tryptophan to niacin and serotonin, a neurotransmitter that plays key roles in sleep, appetite, and moods. Helps make red blood cells Influences cognitive abilities and immune function. 31–50 years old: M: 1.3 mg, W: 1.3 mg; 51+ years old: M: 1.7 mg, W: 1.5 mg 100 mg.
COBALAMIN (vitamin B12) Aids in lowering homocysteine levels and may lower the risk of heart disease. Assists in making new cells and breaking down some fatty acids and amino acids. Protects nerve cells and encourages their normal growth. Helps make red blood cells and DNA. M: 2.4 mcg, W: 2.4 mcg.