Kawah Ijen volcano. High quantities of Sulfuric gas in extreme pressures dazzle in blue as soon as it comes in contact with the air outside.
Urology: The study of the urogenital tract
Vaccinology: The study of vaccines
Virology: The study of viruses
Volcanology (vulcanology): The study of volcanoes
Xenobiology: The study of nonterrestrial life
Xylology: The study of wood
Zooarchaeology: The study of animal remains from archaeological sites to reconstruct relationships between people, animals, and their environment
Zoology: The study of animals
Zoopathology: The study of animal diseases
Zoopsychology: The study of mental processes in animals
Zymology: The study of fermentation
Acarology is the study of mites and ticks, the animals in the order Acarina. It is a subfield of arachnology, a subdiscipline of the field of zoology. A zoologist specializing in acarology is called an acarologist. Acarologists may also be parasitologists because many members of Acarina are parasitic.
Zoologists and wildlife biologists study animals and other wildlife and how they interact with their ecosystems. They study the physical characteristics of animals, animal behaviors, and the impacts humans have on wildlife and natural habitats.
The four main goals of psychology are to describe, explain, predict and change the behavior and mental processes of others.
Describing a behavior or cognition is the first goal of psychology. This can enable researchers to develop general laws of human behavior.
For example, through describing the response of dogs to various stimuli, Ivan Pavlov helped develop laws of learning known as classical conditioning theory.
Once researchers have described general laws behavior, the next step is to explain how or why this trend occurs. Psychologists will propose theories which can explain a behavior.
Psychology aims to be able to predict future behavior from the findings of empirical research. If a prediction is not confirmed, then the explanation it is based on might need to be revised.
For example, classical conditioning predicts that if a person associates a negative outcome with a stimuli they may develop a phobia or aversion of the stimuli.
Once psychology has described, explained and made predictions about behavior, changing or controlling a behavior can be attempted.
For example, interventions based on classical conditioning, such as systematic desensitization, have been used to treat people with anxiety disorders including phobias.
Structuralism and functionalism have since been replaced by several dominant and influential approaches to psychology, each one underpinned by a shared set of assumptions of what people are like, what is important to study and how to study it.
Psychoanalysis, founded by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was the dominant paradigm in psychology during the early twentieth century. Freud believed that people could be cured by making conscious their unconscious thoughts and motivations, thus gaining insight.
Freud’s psychoanalysis was the original psychodynamic theory, but the psychodynamic approach as a whole includes all theories that were based on his ideas, e.g., Jung (1964), Adler (1927) and Erikson (1950).
The classic contemporary perspectives in psychology to adopt scientific strategies were the behaviorists, who were renowned for their reliance on controlled laboratory experiments and rejection of any unseen or unconscious forces as causes of behavior.
Later, the humanistic approach became the ‘third force’ in psychology and proposed the importance of subjective experience and personal growth.
During the 1960s and 1970s, psychology began a cognitive revolution, adopting a rigorous, scientific, lab-based scientific approach with application to memory, perception, cognitive development, mental illness, and much more.
“Topics and questions in psychology can be looked at in a number of different ways. Each perspective helps contribute a new level of understanding to a topic. Some of the major perspectives in psychology include:
Imagine, for example, that psychologists are trying to understand the different factors that contribute to bullying. One researcher might take a biological perspective and look at the role of genetics and the brain. Another might take a behavioral perspective and look at how bullying behaviors are reinforced by the environment. Another might take a social perspective and analyze the impact of group pressure.
No single perspective is right. Each contributes to how we understand a topic and allows researchers to analyze the myriad influences that contribute to certain actions. Then, they can come up with multi-faceted solutions to combat problematic actions and encourage better outcomes and healthier behaviors.
Psychology Has Subfields
In addition to many different perspectives, there are many branches of psychology. Psychologists often opt to specialize in a particular area. Some of the biggest subfields within psychology are clinical psychology, personality psychology, cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, and social psychology.
The type of psychologist that you need may depend upon the type of problem you are facing. If you are experiencing emotional or psychological symptoms, you might need a clinical or counseling psychologist. If you have a question about whether your child is developing normally, then you might want to ask a developmental psychologist.
Some psychologists work in the field of mental health, treating patients experiencing psychiatric disorders and psychological distress. Subfields such as clinical, counseling, and health psychology are focused on helping people with mental and physical health issues.
Other psychologists work in applied subfields, such as forensic psychology and industrial-organizational psychology, to solve real-world problems. Still other psychologists focus their work on research to contribute to our understanding of the human mind and behavior. Such psychologists may specialize in a particular area such as development, social behavior, cognition, or personality.”