Antaranga is a Sanskrit term meaning “internal,” “inner” or “inside.” Antaranga yoga, therefore, refers to the inner path. It is typically associated with the last three limbs of the Eight Limbs of Yoga, or Ashtanga yoga – dharana, dhyana and samadhi. These yogic practices together are referred to as antaranga sadhana (spiritual practice or spiritual discipline). Sometimes, pratyahara, the fifth limb, is included as well. In contrast, the first four limbs are called Bahiranga yoga and include asanas and pranayama.
Antaranga cetana is the concept of internal consciousness, which the yogi experiences during meditation. In this state, there are no thoughts or external sensory perceptions.
Krama is a Sanskrit term meaning “succession.” This can denote a step-by-step progression or a sequence of events.
In yoga, this word is most commonly used to refer to vinyasa krama. Vinyasa krama is an asana practice that flows with the breath and takes a sequential approach in order to achieve a specific goal or intention. Typically, this goal is a more advanced or complex asana. Often, this type of yoga is referred to simply as vinyasa, or flow yoga.
It is said that vinyasa krama practice is beneficial because it helps students to align themselves with the flowing and evolving nature of the universe, rather than being caught in the mindset of seeing each asana as a separate event that’s disconnected from the rest of the practice.
Dvandva is a Sanskrit term that refers to compound pairs of words, usually pairs of opposites. As such, they are particularly useful for discussing dualities and dichotomies. These are relatively common in Sanskrit.
Dvandvas are important in yoga because several yogic concepts and teachings, including the Yoga Sutras, use them in order to express ideas. The term also appears in the Bhagavad Gita where it refers to the concept of focusing on something unchanging, while seeking something higher than the material world.
Hridaya is a Sanskrit word that can be interpreted as “spiritual heart.” It more literally translates from its root words as hri, which means “to give,” da, which means “to take,” and ya from yam, which means “balance.” Therefore, hridaya is “that which gives and takes in perfect balance.” In the same way as the physical heart does this with blood flow, hridaya is the center for giving and taking on a spiritual level.
Hridaya is sometimes used in connection with Hridaya yoga, a type of yoga that focuses on awakening the spiritual heart.
Anavopaya is a concept central to the practice of Kashmir Shaivism, also known as Trika (three-fold) philosophy. It is one of the three methods in the Shaivist tradition to attain transcendence of the self. Although considered the inferior method of the three, it is still believed that yogis who practice these methods can unite with the Divine Consciousness.
In anavopaya, an individual increases awareness of their God Consciousness through the practice of mantra, pranayama and meditation – specifically, meditation which focuses on the inhale and exhale of the breath.
Samprajnata is a type of of samadhi (spiritual ecstasy), which is the eventual aim of meditation.
It is a limited form of self-awareness that is described as a type of conscious meditation or cognition. In this state, the yogi is able to recognize the content of his/her own mind and then consciously release it. This leads to absolute clarity and self-awareness.
Nischala bhava is a term used in Hinduism that means different things depending on the context. It is most commonly translated as “steadfastness” or “immobility” when in reference to one’s spiritual devotion and yogic practice. The nischala bhava holds firm to the motivation to reach samadhi, or true devotees to reaching the goal of Brahman states of consciousness.
“Just as it is known that an image of one’s face is seen depending on a mirror but does not really exist as a face, so the conception of “I” exists dependent on mind and body, but like the image of a face, the “I” does not at all exist as its own reality.” ~ Nagarjuna
Om Swami is a mystic yogi and monk living in the Himalayas. It is believed that he posseses special yogic powers, such as being able to willingly shut down his heartbeat, change the temperature of his body and control his blood pressure.
Om Swami has written several books, the most famous being, “If Truth Be Told: A Monk’s Memoir.” In it, he describes his spiritual path in today’s challenging and material world. In his other books, he passes on his knowledge about yogic and Ayurvedic wisdom, and shares a wisdom and humor of the life of a monk. He is also known as “the monk who sold his Porsch.
Adiyogi is the originator of yoga. From Sanskrit, adi means “first” and yogi refers to a practitioner of yoga. According to yogic philosophy, Shiva is not only a Hindu god, but the first yogi and the first guru. Hence, he is also called Adiyogi or Adiguru.